Translation in WordPress uses this __ and _e functions.
In other words, "esc_url (__ (" is a combination of escape and translation.
It will translate $text and escape HTML. Place theme domain to $domain.
$text returns the translated one, but if there is no translation, it is supposed to return the original text as it is.
There is no translation of the linked part this time, but if it is translated, use a WordPress translation system called GlotPress.
For this, only those with translation authority called PTE authority can translate, and it becomes possible to translate by offering applications to translation editors.
If you are creating your own theme or plugin, you can have PTE permission from the translation editor and you can re-translate by yourself.